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Wakenet3-Europe State-of-the-Art & Research Needs Report

The main document of the Wakenet3-Europe network is now available for download:

Aircraft Wake Vortex - State-of-the-Art & Research Needs

Compiled by F. Holzäpfel et al.

Issued by A. Reinke and C. Schwarz

(prepared 2012, published 2015)

Yearly Reports of the WN3E Coordination Areas

Deliverable D-1.02 "Coordination Area Technology Report 2", prepared by DLR, ONERA, UCL, Thales and TU Berlin (June 2011)

Deliverable D-2.03 "Coordination Area Safety Report 3", prepared by NLR (July 2012)

Deliverable D-3.02 "Coordination Area Concepts Report 2", prepared by NATS and TU Braunschweig (August 2011)
Main focus: operational concepts and capacity analysis

Deliverable D-3.03 "Coordination Area Concepts Report 3", prepared by NATS, TU Berlin and TU Braunschweig (March 2012)
Main focus: Recategorisation, capacity effects of RECAT and research needs for RECAT

Deliverable D-4.01 "Report 1 from Link activities and Trips", prepared by EUROCONTROL (March 2010)

Other reports and Links:



F. Barbaresco, V. Brion, N. Jeannin, "Radar wake-vortices cross-section/Doppler signature characterisation based on simulation and field tests trials", IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation, 15 pp., 05 November 2015

F. Barbaresco, L. Thobois, A. Dolfi-Bouteyre, N. Jeannin, R. Wilson, M. Valla, A. Hallermeyer, P. Feneyrou, V. Brion, L. Besson, J.P. Cariou, L. Leviandier, G. Pillet, D. Dolfi, "Monitoring Wind, Turbulence and Aircraft Wake Vortices by High Resolution RADAR and LIDAR Remote Sensors in all Weather Conditions", URSI Scientific Days, 24-25th March, 2015, CNAM, Paris, provided by Thales Air Systems



Video (shown at World ATM Congress, Madrid), provided by Thales Air Systems

F. Barbaresco, D. Canal, P. Juge, M. Klein, F. Orlandi, Y. Ricci, J.-Y. Schneider, "Radar 3D Monitoring of Wake-Vortex Hazards, Circulation and EDR Retrieval/Calibration; SESAR P12.2.2 and FP7 UFO Sensor Trials at Paris-CDG & Toulouse Airports", International Radar Conference Lille, 2014, provide by Thales Air Systems


F. Barbaresco, L. Mutuel & al, “WAKE VORTEX DETECTION, PREDICTION AND DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS IN SESAR PROGRAM”, 32nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference October 6-10, 2013, provided by Thales Air Systems
(awarded with "Best paper in the emerging technologies and systems", read more).

F. Julian, "Thales teste un radar de turbulence de sillage", published in "AIR & COSMOS No. 2345", February 2013, provided by Thales Air Systems


F. Barbaresco, "Radar/Lidar Sensors SESAR XP1 Trials at CDG airport", WakeNet-USA, October 2012, provided by Thales Air Systems

D. Vanhoenacker-Janvier, K. Djafri, R. della Faille de Leverghem, B. van Swieten, F. Barbaresco, "Simulation of the Radar cross-section of Wake Vortices in clear air", ERAD 2012 - The Seventh European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, Toulouse, June 2012, provided by Thales Air Systems

F. Barbaresco, P. Brovelli, P. Currier, O. Garrouste, M. Klein, P. Juge, Y. Ricci, J.Y. Schneider, "Radar Sensors for Wind & Wake-Vortex Monitoring on Airport : First results of SESAR P12.2.2 XP0 trials campaign at Paris CDG Airport”, ERAD 2012 - The Seventh European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, Toulouse, June 2012, provided by Thales Air Systems

Danille Vanhoenacker-Janvier, Djafri Kahina, Frédéric Barbaresco: "Model for the calculation of the radar cross section of wake vortices of take-off and landing airplanes", EURAD'12 conference, Amsterdam, Nov. 2012, provided by Thales Air Systems

Shanna Schönhals, Meiko Steen, Peter Hecker:
"Towards wake vortex safety and capacity increase: the integrated fusion approach and its demands on prediction models and detection sensors",
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, February 2012, provided by TU Braunschweig


Frédéric Barbaresco, Philippe Juge, Mathieu Klein , Yves Ricci , Jean-Yves Schneider & Jean-François Moneuse, "Optimising Runway Throughput through Wake Vortex Detection, Prediction and Decision Support Tools", ESAV'11 Conference (Enhanced Surveillance of Aircraft and Vehicles), Capri, September 2011, provided by Thales Air Operations


Hahn et al: "Wake Encounter Flight Control Assistance Based on Forward-Looking Measurement Processing", AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference AIAA 2010-7680, August 2010, Toronto, Canda, provided by DLR

Schwarz et al: "Wake Encoutner Severity Assessment Based on ValidatedAerodynamic Interaction Models ", AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Confernece AIAA 2010-7679, August 2010, Toronto, Canda, provided by DLR

Frank Holzäpfel, Takashi Misaka, Ingo Hennemann: "Wake-Vortex Topology, Circulation, and Turbulent Exchange Processes", AIAA Atmospheric and Space Environments Conference AIAA 2010-7992, August 2010, Toronto, Canada, provided by DLR

Kocks et al: "An integrated Wake Vortex Visualization Concept for existingcockpit display systems ", conference proceedings EIWAC2010, provided by TUBS

Schoenhals et al: "Enhancing Wake Vortex Surveillance Capability Using Innovative Fusion Approaches ", conference proceedings EIWAC2010, provided by TUBS

Barbaresco et al: "Candidate Technologies Survey of Airport Wind &Wake-Vortex Monitoring Sensors ", conference paper 9th INO workshop, December 2010, EUROCONTROL, provided by THAV

Barbaresco, Meier: "Radar Monitoring of Wake Vortex: Electromagnetic reflectionof Wake Turbulence in clear air ", Comptesrendus Physique, Académie des Sciences, Elsevier, 2010, provided by THAV

Barbaresco: "Airport Radar Monitoring of Wake Vortex in all WeatherConditions ", EURAD Conference, September 2010, Paris, provided by THAV


Holzäpfel F., Kladetzke J.: "Assessment of Wake Vortex Encounter Probabilities for Crosswind Departure Scenarios", CEAS 2009 European Air and Space Conference, Manchester, UK, 26-29 October 2009, provided by DLR

Holzäpfel, F., T. Gerz, M. Frech, A. Tafferner, F. Köpp, I. Smalikho, S. Rahm, K.-U. Hahn, C. Schwarz, "THE WAKE VORTEX PREDICTION AND MONITORING   SYSTEM WSVBS - PART I: DESIGN", Air Traffic Control Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2009, pp. 301-322, provided by DLR

Gerz, T., F. Holzäpfel, W. Gerling, A. Scharnweber, M. Frech, K. Kober, K. Dengler, S. Rahm: "THE WAKE VORTEX PREDICTION AND MONITORING SYSTEM   WSVBS PART II: PERFORMANCE AND ATC INTEGRATION AT FRANKFURT AIRPORT", Air Traffic Control Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2009, pp. 323-346, provided by DLR


"Alleviation of atmospheric flow disturbance effects on aircraft response", conference proceedings ICAS 2008, provided by DLR

Wake Turbulence event Sydney airport (3 November 2008): An aviation occurence investigation report of the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, provided by DLR


"Safe Limits for Wake Vortex Penetration", conference proceedings AIAA 2007, provided by DLR

"Automated pilot assistance for wake vortex encounters", conference proceedings CEAS 2007, provided by DLR


"Wake Vortex Avoidance versus Landing Capacity", conference proceedings AIAA 2006, provided by DLR

"Impact of individual and dynamic wake vortex separations on airport capacity", conference proceedings ICAS 2006, provided by DLR


"Full-flight simulator study for wake vortex hazard area investigation", publication in Aerospace Science and Technology 2005, provided by DLR

Wake turbulence overview and position papers

(Please note: the following publications are not available for download on the WakeNet3-Europe homepage!)

Aircraft Wake Vortices - A Position Paper
Thomas Gerz, Frank Holzäpfel and Denis Darracq, April 2001, or

Commercial Aircraft Wake Vortices
Thomas Gerz, Frank Holzäpfel and Denis Darracq, 2002, Prog. Aerosp. Sci., Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 181-208

Wake Vortex Research Needs for "Improved Wake Vortex Separation Ruling" and "Reduced Wake Signatures", Part I: Summary & Recommendations and Part II: Specialists' Reports.
Final Report of the Thematic Network "WakeNet2-Europe", ed. Bram Elsenaar, March 2006,

Wake Vortex Research - A Retrospective Look
Hallock, J.N., Greene, G.C., Burnham, D.C., Air Traffic Control Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1998, pp. 161-178

Airplane Trailing Vortices
Spalart, P.R., Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 30, 1998, pp. 107-138

Lift-generated vortex wakes of subsonic transport aircraft
Vernon Rossow, Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 6, 1999, pp. 507-660

FAA/NASA Wake Turbulence Research Program - WakeVAS Conops Evaluation Team Reports
Paul Fiduccia, Wayne Bryant, et al., 2005

Wake Turbulence: An Obstacle to Increased Air Traffic Capacity
Committee to Conduct an Independent Assessment of the Nation's Wake Turbulence Research and Development Program, National Research Council, ISBN: 0-309-11380-6, 102 pages, 2008,



additional Publications


Dengler, K., Keil, C., Frech, M., Gerz, T., Kober, K. (2009): "Comparison and validation of two high-resolution weather forecast models at Frankfurt Airport", Meteorologische Zeitschrift  18 , pp. 531-542.

Frank Holzäpfel, Michael Frech,  Thomas Gerz, Arnold Tafferner, Klaus-Uwe Hahn, Carsten Schwarz, Hans-Dieter Joos, Bernd Korn, Helge Lenz, Robert Luckner, Gordon Höhne: "Aircraft Wake Vortex Scenarios Simulation Package - WakeScene", Aerospace Science and Technology, Vol. 13, Issue 1, 2009, pp. 1-11, doi:10.1016/j.ast.2007.09.008  (this paper can be found here)

Holzäpfel, F., Kladetzke, J., Amelsberg, S., Lenz, H., Schwarz, C. and De Visscher, I.: "Aircraft wake vortex scenarios simulation package for takeoff and departure", Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2009, pp. 713-717. DOI: 10.2514/1.39346 (this paper can be found here)